WATER RESILIENT KOLIWADA

Adapting the Koli community in Mumbai to sea-level rise




Abhinavv Singh
Master of Urban Design
Advisors: Jonathan Kline & Stefan Gruber

























Mapping the urban growth of Mumbai






Koliwada network Map. Info source: MMRDA






 















ISSUES








THE EXISTING CONDITION


Transect 1: Impact of sea level rise
Transect 1: Impact of sea level rise






TACTICS



 




IMPLEMENTATION:  S SCALE- THE HOUSE


Designing a framework for the houses on the edge with the sea to increment using a bamboo framework, successively clearing out the lower levels to be inundated by sea water. The existing formwork is retained and balconies are added to provide space for social and visual interaction with the surrounding houses. The weather protection is redesigned to capture rainwater that can be collected in rainwater harvest tanks  Designing a framework for the houses on the edge with the sea to increment using a bamboo framework, successively clearing out the lower levels to be inundated by sea water. The existing formwork is retained and balconies are added to provide space for social and visual interaction with the surrounding houses. The weather protection is redesigned to capture rainwater that can be collected in rainwater harvest tanks
Designing a framework for the houses on the edge with the sea to increment using a bamboo framework, successively clearing out the lower levels to be inundated by sea water. The existing formwork is retained and balconies are added to provide space for social and visual interaction with the surrounding houses. The weather protection is redesigned to capture rainwater that can be collected in rainwater harvest tanks








IMPLEMENTATION: M SCALE - THE CLUSTER


            




Converting the courtyards into greenscapes that also act as wetlands
Designing the courtyards as greenscapes and wetlands with a network of stilts tying up the houses








TRANSECT 1: THE VISION
Designing the edge with wetlands and levees and creating better access to the water edge helps improve the connection with the edge. At the same time designing the houses to adapt and accept sea level rise and converting the courtyards into a network of wetlands creates a more resilient built typology









ISSUES









 






THE EXISTING CONDITION


The hard paved isolated courtyards along with the dense built typology of Transect 1
The hard paved isolated courtyards along with the dense built typology of Transect 1





TACTICS


Creating a cohesive network of green connections by linking the courtyards and commercial street with the new access paths created in Transect 1











IMPLEMENTATION: L SCALE- COURTYARDS AS NETWORK WETLANDS THAT ACTS AS WASTE WATER TREATMENT SYSTEM





1. Mangrove Wetlands             2. Maturation Pond with filtration tank (2-3 days)         3. Oxidation pond with filtration tank(2-3 days)             4. optional pond











IMPLEMENTATION : M SCALE- COMMUNITY AMENITIES INTEGRATED WITH THE WETLAND SYSTEM

  The Community center is designed as an incremental structure that can be constructed by the community and is integrated with religious institutions who fund it through crowdsourcing.






TRANSECT 2: THE VISION
Transect 2 by virtue of being an area of high topography is less likely to be impacted by sea level rise. However, it is imperative to increase the pervious surface by creating a network of wetlands that function as waste water treatment system. The streets are envisoned as green corridors while continuing to function as the commercial spine






ISSUES



1. A sea wall constructed on the bay edge as a poor attempt to counter sea level rise









2. Poor access to the water edge









3. Commercial street connecting the fish market also acts as a barrier to the water edge






 






THE EXISTING CONDITION



A sea wall creates a barrier between Worli Koliada and Mahim Bay








TACTICS 


Continuing the green connections from the previous two transects and integrating the commercial street and courtyards











Extending the green connections on to the mudflats as a connection to the new floating typology





IMPLEMENTATION


Phase wise transition to constructing a new floating typology on the Bay by breaking down the sea wall to create an Eco-breakwater. The units constructed on the bay are used to relocate the people most vulnerable to sea level rise. The displaced existing units are replaced by mangrove wetlands






THE FISH MARKET


ISSUE



Shed structure with poor access to both the sea and commercial areas, inadequate capacity





The current fish market is essentially a shed like structure where the women from the Koli community engage in the sale of fishes through a pay per seat system.






REDESIGNED FISH MARKET

 




TRANSECT 3: VISION


Exploring the possibility of a new floating typology of houses that would adapt to the waters of the Mahim bay and the design of a more efficient fish market






THE MUDFLATS OF MAHIM BAY

The Mahim Bay is a shallow basin where the Koli community has been carrying out their fishing activities for centuries. The calm waters recede upto 200 feet from the mainland during low tides twice daily creating a vast expanse of mudflats. Respecting the sensitive ecology of the region, a design of a new floating typology is envisioned 
 











TACTICS


Using the debris from the broken sea wall to construct a breakwater to calm the waters of the Bay









The network of pontoons connecting the floating houses is connected to the main green axes and follows a similar street pattern of main street branching out into smaller lanes











The floating houses are designed as dense clusters tied together by water courtyards similar to the typology on the mainland







THE BUOYANT UNIT










COMMONING CASE STUDIES IN MUMBAI


Referring to the works of Architect PK Das and Architect Kondakar Hasibul Kabir from Bangladesh





  












DESIGNING THE ACTION PLAN












PHASE WISE IMPLEMENTATION OVER 30 YEARS


Phase 1: Identifying the most vulnerable groups︎relocating them on to the mudflats
securing funds for a new fish market︎relocating fish market on land aquired from demolished units on the less vulnerable bay side
ecology experts consulted in demolition of sea wall, construction of wetlands and levees︎secure local contractors and labor Key Stakeholders: Local contractor, Ecology Experts, Housing NGO (convinving the dwellers to relocate), State( Permissions) World Bank and PMAY (Funding)








Phase 2: Local contractors and laborers construct the wetlands, fish market︎Community organization takes over the upkeep and begins collecting revenue to pay back the soft loans
Wetland construction completed︎first phase of housing incrementation begins with locally sourced bamboo and bamboo crafting used as a skill and community building exercise
Buoyant units are constructed and vulnerable families begin aquaculture
Community based organization collects revenue to construct the community center
Key Stakeholders: Community (upkeep, crowdfunding, skill building), Urban Designers, Local contractors and laborers, World Bank and Koliwada trust (Funding)









Phase 3: Final phase of mangrove wetlands, stilts, and buoyant units completed
Community center constructed and linked to religious organizations to collect funding through donations and community activities
Fish market spurs additional economic activity






FINAL VISION


The proposal is envisioned to have a ripple effect across the various Koli communities of Mumbai that could potentially be duplicated in different Koliwadas across the city with the intention of creating a green corridor on the western coast of Mumbai through a resilient Koliwada network.